II. 7 BELO HORIZONTE
Guyana, and making anti-communist speeches, Jones seems to have dropped
off the face of the earth. Following the Guyana Graphic
article of October 27, he disappears from the public record for almost
six full months.
It is possible,
of course, that he journeyed into the interior of that country to work
among the Amerindians---but the evidence for this is so slim as to be
invisible. Indeed, it consists solely of a remark by anthropologist
Kathleen Adams, who wrote that Jones had at one time worked as a missionary
in Guyana. Where and when is left unstated, but it was presumably
during that period that Jones learned about his homicidal predecessor,
the Reverend "Smith."
disturbance in the empty field of Jones's whereabouts from 10/61 until
4/62 is the information that Passport #0111788 was issued in his
name at Indianapolis on January 30, 1962.
This is a
considerable anomaly. As we have seen, Jones already had a passport---#22898751,
issued to him in Chicago on June 28, 1960. This earlier passport,
which he had planned to use on a trip to the Soviet Union, was still valid.
Why, then, did someone make an application for a new passport, and who
picked it up? Moreover, how is it possible that Jones's second passport
had a lower number than the one that he'd received more than a year before?
cannot be answered at this time: the evidence reposes in the files of
the State Department. What may be said, however, is that there
is good reason to suspect that someone was impersonating Jim Jones during
this period; and that, in fact, a photograph of the impostor survives.
We'll return to this subject shortly.
to the Brazilian Federal Police, Jim Jones arrived by plane in Sao Paulo
on April 11, 1962. There does not seem to be any surviving record
of his point of embarkation, but it may well have been Havana. According
to Bonnie (Malmin) Thielman, who met Jones at about this time, there was
"a picture of him and Marceline standing on either side of Fidel Castro,
whom they had met during a Cuban stopover en route to Brazil..." 
family, making "a Cuban stopover," seven to eleven months after the Bay
of Pigs? Physically, transportation would not have been difficult
to arrange. Both Mexico City and Georgetown were transit-points
for Havana. But Cuban visas were by no means issued automatically---especially
to Americans making well-publicized, anti-communist speeches in
Guyana. How much harder it must have been for Jones to arrange to
have a photo taken of himself with Castro (who was at that time the target
of CIA assassination attempts planned by yet another Indianapolis native,
the CIA's William Harvey).
It's a peculiar,
even eerie, business. I'm reminded of the man who impersonated
Lee Harvey Oswald while applying for a visa at the Cuban Embassy in Mexico
City during 1963. 
his reason for visiting Cuba during the Winter of 1961-62, and whatever
the reasons he was permitted to enter the country, Jones had no trouble
entering Brazil that April. Given a visa that was valid for eleven
months, he and his family traveled to Belo Horizonte where, as we have
seen, Dan Mitrione had settled in as an OPS adviser at the U.S. Consulate.
rooms in the first-class Hotel Financial until he and his family were
able to move to a house at 203 Rua Maraba.  This is a pretty street in an attractive neighborhood
on a hill in one of the best parts of town. Accordingly, his new
neighbors were almost all professionals: doctors, lawyers, teachers,
engineers, and journalists. It was not the sort of place from which
one could easily minister to the poor.
it mattered. Jones's stay in Belo Horizonte had little or nothing
to do with alleviating poverty.
to his neighbors, Jones would leave his house early each morning, as if
going to work, and return very late at night. Sebastiao Carlos
Rocha, an engineer who lived nearby, noted that Jones usually left home
carrying a big leather briefcase; on a number of occasions, Rocha said,
he saw Jones walking in Betim, a neighboring town. 
a lawyer who lived across the street and who sometimes interpreted for
Jones, says that her neighbor told her that he had a job in Belo Horizonte
proper, at Eureka Laundries. 
This is a
huge dry-cleaning and laundry chain, a quasi-monopoly whose central plant
is serviced by more than a score of pick-up points (small storefronts)
throughout the city. In essence, a customer delivers his laundry
to one of the stores, where it is later collected by a delivery truck.
The truck takes the dirty clothes to the central plant, where they're
cleaned, and then returns them to the store from which they came.
It's a big business.
not one in which Jim Jones ever worked. According to Sebastiao
Dias de Magalhaes, who was head of Industrial Relations for Eureka during
1962, Jones's claim to have been an employee of the laundry was false.
 Senor de Magalhaes,
and two other Eureka workers, have told the press that Jones lied in
order to conceal what they believe was his work for the CIA. 
you didn't know better, Jones's cover-story served three purposes:
first, it explained where he went during the day---to work. Second,
it offered a theoretically visible means of support: he had a check from
Eureka (everyone knows Eureka). And third, it gave Jones an alibi
for a mysterious period during which he'd vanished from Belo Horizonte.
According to Elza Rocha, when Jones returned, he told her that he had
been sent to the United States for "special training" in connection with
the machinery used by Eureka. Where Jones actually went, and why,
is a unknown. 
Jones's only cover, however. He didn't mention Eureka to Sebastiao
Rocha. Instead, he claimed to be a retired captain in the U.S. Navy.
He said that he had suffered a great deal in the war, and that he received
a monthly pension from the armed services. The implication was that
he had been wounded in the Korean conflict. According to Senor Rocha,
"Jim Jones was always mysterious and would never talk about his work here
in Brazil." 
Rocha, Marco Aurelio, was absolutely certain that Jones was a spy.
At the time, Marco was dating a young girl who was living in the Jones
household.  Because
of this, and because Rua Maraba is a narrow street on which parked cars
are conspicuous, he noticed that a car from the American Consulate was
often parked outside Jones's house. According to Marco, the car's
driver sometimes brought bags of groceries to the Joneses---which, if true,
was definitely not standard consular procedure.
interest in Jones was more than idle, however. According to him,
he was keeping a loose surveillance on the American preacher at the
request of a friend---a detective in the ID-4 section of the local police
department. The detective was convinced that Jones was a CIA agent,
and was trying to prove it with his young friend's help. Unfortunately,
the policeman died before his investigation could be completed, and Jones
left town soon afterwards. 
the purpose behind Jones's residency in Belo Horizonte is anything but
easy. He is reported to have been fascinated by the magical rites
of Macumba and Umbanda, and to have studied the practices of Brazilian
faith-healers. He was extremely interested in the works of David
Miranda, and is said to have conducted a study of extrasensory perception.
These were subjects of interest to the CIA in connection with its MK-ULTRA
program. So, also, were the "mass conversion techniques" at which
Jones's Pentecostal training had made him an expert.
these investigations were idle pastimes or Jones's actual raison d'etre
in Belo Horizonte is unknown. Neither is there hard evidence that
Jones's presence was related to Dan Mitrione's work at the Consulate---though
Jones was certainly aware of Mitrione's post. According to an autobiographical
fragment that was found at Jonestown, Mitrione
Subsequently, according to that same fragment,
Jones went out of his way to socialize with the Mitrione family.
| "...was known in Belo Horizonte
to be something other than a mere 'traffic
advisor'. There were rumors that he parti-
cipated with the military even then, doing
strange things to dissenters... Mitrione's
name would come up frequently."
Jones was a sociopath, a suspected agent of the police/intelligence community,
and a man whose historical stature was intimately entwined with his
false public identity as an "apostle of socialism," there is good reason
to be skeptical of the sincerity of his pronouncements about Dan Mitrione
and his family. If Mitrione was, as seems likely, Jones's first
"control," then Jones would obviously fear the revelation of that fact.
In particular, he would fear the chance discovery of their past association,
and the questions such a discovery would raise. To allay such suspicions,
Jones may well have acted to co-opt the discovery---explaining it away
in advance. Thus, he tells us that he knew Dan Mitrione as a child,
and that, in Brazil, he wanted to "inform on his activities to everybody
on the Left." So it was, we're told, that he decided to "case this
man out," and came to know his family.
explain the presence of a consular car outside Jones's house: if Jones
was socializing with the Mitrione family, the consular car was probably
their's. But who are the people on the Left to whom Jones refers?
Whom was he going to tell about Dan Mitrione? So far as anyone
knows, Jones's acquaintances in Brazil were all conservatives.
Indeed, like Bonnie Thielman's father, the Rev. Edward Malmin, they should
more accurately be described as right-wingers. And, as such, they
would undoubtedly have approved of Mitrione's work.
while there is every reason to be skeptical of Jones's memoir, it is
interesting that he characterizes his relationship to the Mitriones as
that of an informant, or spy. Given Jones's sociopathic personality
(not to mention his rightwing sermons in Guyana and the implications of
his CIA file), it is very likely that Jones was working for Mitrione
rather than against him.
While Jones is said to have
gone to the U.S. Consulate often, the only person whom he is known to
have seen there was Jon Lodeesen. 
18, 1962, Vice Consul Lodeesen wrote a peculiar letter to Jones on Foreign
Service stationary. The letter reads:
| "I'd heard
of his nefarious activities
in Belo Horizonte, and I thought 'I'll case
this man out.' I wasn't really inclined
do him in, not me personally, but I certainly
was inclined to inform on his activities to
everybody on the Left.
"But he wouldn't see
me. I saw his family
and they were arrogantly anti-Brazilian..."
Signed by Lodeesen,
there is a redundant post-script to the letter, requesting that Jones
"Please see me."
letter itself is entirely opaque, an attachment to it is not. This
a passport-type photograph of a man who, despite his mustache and receding
hairline, looks remarkably like Jim Jones---or, more accurately perhaps,
like Jim Jones in disguise. While one cannot be certain, it may well
be that the photo is related to the peculiar circumstances under which
a second passport was issued to Jones---while the first passport was still
That it was
Jon Lodeesen who contacted Jones is significant in its own right.
This is so because Lodeesen has been a spy for much of his life.
According to Soviet intelligence officers, he is a CIA agent who taught
at the US intelligence school in Garmisch Partenkirchen, West Germany---a
sort of West Point for spooks. Subsequently, he worked at the U.S.
Embassy in Moscow---until he was declared persona non grata for suspected
espionage activities. Kicked out of the Soviet Union, he went to
work for Radio Liberty, a CIA-created and -financed propaganda network
based in Munich. There, he was Deputy Director of the Soviet Analysis
and Broadcasting Section. 
More recently, Lodeesen was recommended for work with a CIA cover in
Hawaii.  In a letter
to the proprietor of the cover, Lodeesen was described as "fluent in the
principal Russian tongues" and an expert on "Soviet double agents, dissidents
man, in other words, to handle the passport problems of an American
psychopath who'd applied for a visa to visit the Soviet Union; who'd
made repeated trips to Castro's Cuba; who had two valid passports at
the same time; and who seems to have been the victim of, or a party to,
| "Dear Mr. Jones:
"We received a communication and we believe
its your interest to come at the Consulate
at your earliest convenience." (Sic.)
II.8 JONES IN RIO
the Jones family in Belo Horizonte are agreed that he lived in the city
for a period of eight months, beginning in the Spring of 1962.
He then moved to Rio de Janeiro.
Jones seems to have been following Dan Mitrione's lead. In mid-December,
as the Jones family packed for the move to Rio, Mitrione left Belo Horizonte
for a two-month "vacation" in the U.S. At the beginning of March,
he returned to Brazil---but not to Belo Horizonte. Instead, he
found an apartment in the posh Botafogo section of Rio de Janeiro.
was not far from Jim Jones, who was recumbent in equally elegant surroundings,
having found an expensive flat in the Flamengo neighborhood. 
to Brazilian immigration authorities, who are said to keep meticulous
records, the Jones family left Rio for an unknown country at the end of
March. And they did not return.
to Jones, however, he and his family lived in Rio until December of 1963.
The assassination of President John F. Kennedy (in November of that
year) was the stimulus for their return to Indiana.
in other words, a nine-month period in which Jones's whereabouts are at
least somewhat questionable. One would think, of course, that there
would be a great many records and witnesses to the matter. Unfortunately,
that isn't the case. Those members of Jones's family, and his associates,
who might have seen him in Rio either died at Jonestown---or were too
young at the time to be certain where they were in 1963. 
should have been settled, of course, by the newspaper articles that appeared
in Brazil after the Jonestown massacre. These were stories with
local angles, describing Jones's life in Brazil. Curiously, however,
none of the articles originating in Rio quote identifiable sources.
This is quite unlike counterpart articles written about Jones's stay in
Belo Horizonte. In the latter, almost everyone seems delighted to
get his name in the paper. In Rio, nobody wants to be identified.
By far the
most extensive account of Jones's stay in Rio de Janeiro was published
in a newspaper that is thought by many to have been owned, or secretly
supported, by the CIA. This was the English-language Brazil Herald.
to the article, it was "through a friend in Belo Horizonte" that Jones
"found a job as a salesman of investments" in Rio. The source for
this information is unstated, as is the identity of Jones's friend in Belo
for which Jones is said to have worked was Invesco, S.A., which had offices
in the Edificio Central in downtown Rio.  At least, it did until the firm went bankrupt,
under scandalous circumstances, in 1967. Though this occurred
more than ten years before, Invesco's former assistant manager---Jim
Jones's boss---was still in Rio at the time of the Jonestown massacre.
An American who'd come to Brazil in the late 1940s, and stayed, he was
willing to confirm Jones's employment at Invesco---but not much more.
And he did not want his name used.
a salesman with us," he told the Herald, "(Jones) didn't make it.
He was too shy and I don't remember him selling anything,"
Jim Jones, this is a remarkable statement. Is it possible
that someone who sold monkeys door-to-door in Indianapolis during the Fifties
could be too timid to sell mutual funds in Rio de Janeiro during the bull-markets
of the Sixties? The mind boggles. Here is a man who is said
to have talked 900 people into killing themselves for what he hoped would
be his greater glory...and he was "too shy"?!
him on a strictly commission basis and as far as I know he didn't sell
anything in the three months that he worked for us," the former assistant
is an interesting remark because it implies that, while Jones worked
for Invesco, there would be no record of the fact as a consequence of
his failure to record any sales. Without putting too much of a point
on it, the reader should know that commission-only sales' jobs are favorite
covers for CIA agents in foreign countries. This is so because the
agent is not required to produce any cover-related work-product for his
civilian boss (i.e., he doesn't need to sell anything at all)---because
he's working strictly "on commission." At the same time, salesmen
working on commission are expected to travel, and to cultivate a broad spectrum
Jones was working for Invesco or not, it served as a good cover for whatever
else he might have been doing.
the sales-job which Jones is supposed to have held down produced no income
at all, how did he support himself? According to the Brazil
Herald, he "was receiving donations of checks sent by his followers
in the US. His ex-boss notes having seen Jones' briefcase filled
with checks." This is possible, of course, but extremely unlikely.
Membership in the Peoples Temple had plummeted during Jones's absence,
dwindling from 2000 members in 1961 to fewer than 100 parishioners at
the time of the Kennedy assassination. By the end of 1963, the electric
and telephone bills had gone unpaid, and disconnection threatened.
The idea that parishioners were supporting Jones in high style, by sending
him personal checks, is ludicrous. Not only did they not have the
money, but Jones would probably have starved had he depended upon cashing
small personal checks, written on Indianapolis bank accounts, in Rio de
in the Brazil Herald story, the December 4, 1978 article in Time
Magazine is cited. According to Time, Jones spent a
part of 1963 working at the "American School of Rio." Asked about
this, the American School issued the following statement: "Neither the
salary records maintained in the business office nor the personnel records
maintained in the headmaster's office reflect this name (i.e., Jim Jones)
as having been connected with our school as an employee."
boss at Invesco was not the only source for the article in the Herald.
A second source was a Cariocan who claimed to be a Jones's closest friend
in Rio. In the article, she is identified only as "Madame X."
Invesco, Madame X said, Jones went to work at the Escola Sao Fernando,
while his son, Stephan, attended the British School. As it happens,
however, there is no "Escola Sao Fernando" in Rio, and the British School
denies that Stephan Jones was ever one of its students.
Madame X says that Jones decided to return to the U.S. upon hearing
of President John F. Kennedy's assassination (on November 22).
The trip to the States was supposed to be a temporary visit. Jones
intended to straighten out the problems that the Peoples Temple was experiencing
in his absence---and then to return to Brazil. Accordingly, Madame
X added, a friend of the family continued paying Jones rent on the apartment
in Rio. Eventually, when it became clear that the Joneses would
not return, Madame X sold their furniture and other goods, and donated
the money to charitable causes.
of the family" is, like Madame X and Jones's boss at Invesco, never identified.
So who is
of the Brazil Herald article, Harold Emert, doesn't know.
The reason he doesn't know is that he himself never spoke to her.
Jim Bruce did. Who, then, is Jim Bruce? According to Emert,
Jim Bruce was at that time an American freelancer based in Brazil.
It was he who inspired the Jim-Jones-in-Rio story and he who provided the
sources: i.e., the Invesco executive and Madame X.
failed to write the story himself is unclear. 
been persistent rumors that Jim Jones worked for a CIA cover during his
stay in Rio. The cover is said to have been an advertising agency,
but no one can say why they think so. The Washington Post's
Charles Krause and then-New York Times reporter John Crewdson each
pursued the story, but neither was able to track it down.
Invesco was at the heart of the matter, though its connection to Jones
cannot have been more than a faded memory when Crewdson and Krause were
looking into it. The only public reference to Jones's association
with the firm was in the weekend edition of a small, almost ephemeral,
newspaper. The sources for the story were anonymous, and the newspaper
itself no longer existed, having long since been swallowed up by a rival.
As for Invesco, its 1967 bankruptcy had taken place under military rule
amid strict censorship of the press. Because bankruptcies reflected
poorly on the economy, and therefore on the ruling junta, their occurrence---however
scandalous---often went unreported.
reasons, then, Invesco has remained almost entirely unknown.
needs to be emphasized that, for whatever reason, Jim Jones felt the
need for some sort of cover in Brazil. That's why he lied to his
neighbors in Belo Horizonte, telling some that he was employed by the
Eureka Laundries and others that he was a retired Navy captain living
on a pension. In Rio, which has a small and gossipy expatriate
community, the need for a cover would have been even more strongly felt.
And for Jones's purposes, Invesco was ideal.
the company was an offshore analog of Bernie Cornfeld's Investors Overseas
Services (IOS). In South America, at least, it pioneered the practice
of selling shares in mutual funds.
a venture-capital firm in 1951, its original name was Expansao Tecnico
Industrial, S.A. (ETIN). It was a subsidiary of Victorholt, S.A.
Industria e Commercio, whose President was Lewis Holt Ruffin. According
to an old Rio hand, ETIN was set up by employees of Price, Waterhouse,
including a man who was reputed to have been a German spy during World
has always had Brazilian investors, its affairs have tended to be dominated
by the participation of Rio-based Americans, English, Germans and "Swiss.
" This last contingent includes a number of individuals who arrived
in Brazil in the mid-to-late 1940s. While they claimed to be Swiss,
they are thought to have been Germans.
Rio say that several of Invesco's principals are associates of a former
owner of the Brazil Herald, Gilbert Huber, Jr.  Among other business
activities, Huber is a part-owner of American Light and Power, and publishes
the Rio de Janeiro "Yellow Pages".  Huber is credited by many Brazilians with helping
to pave the way for the reign of terror that followed the 1964 coup d'etat.
By this is meant that Huber was one of two people credited with founding
the Instituto de Pesquiasas e Estudos Sociais (IPES). Known in English
as the Institute for Social Research Studies, IPES was established in 1961
by conservatives who were alarmed by the Cuban revolution and the leftward
drift of the Brazilian government. Similar in many ways to theJohn
Birch Society, IPES was almost certainly funded by covert American sources.
IPES was an instrument of propaganda, saturating the country with films,
books, pamphlets and lectures attacking communism and 'the threat from
within.' but propaganda was only a part of its strategy. Within
a year of its founding, the Institute had begun to organize armed, paramilitary
cells. It had also established a clandestine hand-grenade factory, and
developed plans for a civil war. At the same time, it had hired a
network of retired military officers 'to exert influence on those on active
duty.'  One of those retired
officers was General Golbery do Couto e Silva. His job was to compile
40,000 dossiers on Brazilians whose loyalties were considered suspect.
When the coup succeeded, Golbery came out of 'retirement' at IPES.
Moving to Brazilia with 'hundreds of thousands' of files, he established
Brazil's first intelligence service, the SNI---a South American fusion of
its counterpart services in the United States, the FBI and the CIA.
Many of the men and women in Golbery's political dossiers suffered mightily
under the junta. Some were placed under house arrest or imprisoned,
while others were tortured. Still others fell prey to the esquadraos
da mortes (death squads).
While Gilbert Huber's connection to Invesco is
merely rumored, another Huber's is not. This is Joyce Huber Blumer,
who owned 55,000 shares in the firm.  British by birth, she has attracted a certain
amount of attention in the Brazilian press for what has been characterized
as a "baby-selling" enterprise. Two other owners of Invesco were
a Swiss or German national named Werner Blumer (24,000 shares), and an
American named Scott McAuley Johnson (54,000 shares). Blumer owns
an art gallery in Rio, while Johnson is described by various sources as
"a mystery man" of independent means.
The Train Robbers
us to an interesting story.
In the same
year that Jones went to work for Invesco, a British hoodlum named Ronald
Biggs participated in what came to be called "the Great Train Robbery,"
sharing more than $7-million in cash and valuables stolen from a Glasgow-to-London
and sentenced to 30 years, Biggs escaped from prison in 1965.
Fleeing to France, he relied upon an international criminal network to
obtain plastic surgery and passage to Australia. Tracked by the
police as the "most wanted" man in the world, Biggs subsequently found
his way to Rio de Janeiro (where extradition is, at best, a rarity).
According to a reporter who was ultimately instrumental in revealing Biggs's
whereabouts, the fugitive's patrons in Rio were the same people who owned
Invesco: Joyce Huber, Werner Blumer, Scott Johnson and others.
while hiding out in Rio, came to live at Scott Johnson's apartment,
where he was patronized and protected by Huber and the others, is an important
question.  Among
other things, it suggests the possibility (indeed, the likelihood) that
the firm which provided cover (or an alibi) for Jim Jones's activities
in Rio was part of the so-called ODESSA network. 
In this connection,
Piers Paul Read's The Train Robbers is of interest.  Read undertook to write
the book more than a decade after the robbery, and long after several
other books had already been published on the subject. What made
these unpromising circumstances auger well, according to Read, were two
things: first, he had the cooperation of most of the men who'd pulled
off the robbery. Previously, only Ronald Biggs had given an account,
and Biggs was considered an outsider by those who'd conceived and executed
the plan. Second, and even more importantly, the gang confided important
new information to Read. This was that the train robbery, and several
of the subsequent escapes, had been financed and finessed by Gen. Otto
Skorzeny. Among other things, this explained why it had never been
possible to account for more than half of the money stolen in the robbery.
Nazi, Skorzeny had been Hitler's favorite commando. After the
war, he'd re-established himself in Madrid as an arms-dealer and, with
even greater secrecy, as the mastermind behind Die Spinne---the
underground railroad that obtained forged documents and plastic surgery
for war criminals and others requiring safe-havens in South America and
the Middle East. As the proprietor of a de facto intelligence
agency with connections throughout the world, Skorzeny made millions as
a consultant to countries and organizations whose politics were compatible
with his own (e.g., Nasser's Egypt and the Secret Army Organization in
Buster Edwards and his wife gave Read a detailed description---names,
dates and places---of how Die Spinne had smuggled him from England
to Germany to Mexico. 
A woman named "Hannah Schmid,"  whose father had served with Skorzeny in the Second
World War, saw to it that he received plastic surgery and the documents
necessary to travel. Edwards recuperated for nearly a month in the
home of a Prussian aristocrat, "Annaliese von Lutzeberg,"  and was then sent on his
way to Mexico---but not before he'd purchased shares (under an assumed name)
in a business that Skorzeny owned. 
Mexico, Edwards and two of the other train-robbers reunited with Schmid,
who "proposed that they should run guns to the Peronists in Argentina;
or train troops for a planned putsch in Panama..."  Edwards and his friends declined: it just
wasn't their scene.
Edwards' story, and the stories of the other robbers, Read found that
every verifiable detail was confirmed. Before finishing his book,
however, it was left to him to interview Ronald Biggs in Rio. Accordingly,
he got on a plane.
was not that difficult. He was living at Scott Johnson's apartment.
What he had to say, however, was in flat contradiction to the accounts
of everyone else. According to Biggs, there were no Germans.
flabbergasted. Had he been hoaxed? Or was Biggs lying on
behalf of what Read suspected were his Nazi protectors? Read couldn't
(Biggs) wished me to disbelieve the Skorzeny connection so that he himself
could break it to the world and reap the benefit; at worst he was still
in the care of Skorzeny's organisation and had been told to persuade
me that it did not exist.
I pondered this last possibility, the more convinced I became that this
was the explanation---for it still seemed inconceivable to me that June
(Edwards) had invented her meeting with Skorzeny in Madrid, or could have
discovered that he was a friend of the Reader's Digest editor who
spoke fourteen Chinese dialects. I suddenly realised how thoughtless
and foolhardy I had been to come to a country (Brazil) known to be a nest
of ex-Nazis. Clearly Biggs had been saved from extradition not because
of his child, but because of neo-Nazi influence in government circles.
The woman who had been with him at the airport, Ulla Sopher, a German-Argentinian
with blonde hair and blue eyes, was part of their network. All
the strands of the story came together to form a noose around my neck."
despite this cogent explanation for what had happened, and despite the
evidence that Edwards and the others had provided, Read demurred.
Over drinks in a sidewalk cafe, "I began to believe that Biggs was telling
turn-about that occurs at the very end of the book, Read's conversion
to Biggs' account makes no sense at all. Biggs's own fugitivity,
which (like Edwards's) was facilitated by plastic surgery and forged documents
provided by an unnamed criminal syndicate, is the best argument against
the story he tells.
if Read would have ended his book differently if he had known about Jim
Jones, Scott Johnson and Invesco.
Read didn't have clues to the fact that Biggs was living in a kind of
parapolitical twilight---a world defined by the inter-penetration of criminal
syndicates and the intelligence community.
clue pertained to Biggs' son, "Mikezinho," who was born while his father
was a fugitive in Rio. "Little Mikey" had a very interesting godfather,
a man with powerful European connections and who, like Werner Blumer,
was in the business of selling art.
Fernand Legros, who concerns us here only because his association with
Biggs's, and Biggs's friends in Rio, adds perspective to what might be
called "the Invesco circle."
been described as a "playboy, millionaire, art dealer and CIA agent..."
 A native Egyptian,
with apartments in Switzerland, France and Spain, he was a homosexual
whose lovers included the Secretary-General of the United Nations (Dag
Hammerskjold) and members of French cabinet.  A naturalized American, Legros resorted to at least
four passports: French, American, Canadian and British.
It is alleged
(by author Henrik Kruger and others) that Legros played a lethal role
in the mysterious (and still unsolved) kidnapping and murder of the Moroccan
dissident, Ben Barka---who disappeared from the streets of Paris (where
Legros owned an art-gallery) in October, 1965. According to Kruger,
Legros had been in contact with Ben Barka in Geneva, where the art-dealer
had a second gallery and both men had apartments. Lured to France,
Ben Barka was kidnapped, tortured and killed. While his disappearance
remains unsolved, the operation has often been attributed to French gangsters
(including a man named Christian David) acting on Legros's orders.
Legros himself is believed to have been working at the time for either
the CIA or France's SDECE.
Legros fled to Brazil upon being implicated in the authentication and
sale of forgeries attributed to modern masters. Sold for millions
to gullible investors around the world, the forgeries are believed to
have been painted by Elmyr de Hory, Clifford Irving's friend and neighbor
influence seems not to have been much diminished by the notoriety surrounding
the forgeries. According to Kruger, the art-dealer was "a personal
friend of Henry Kissinger's,...(and) the man the CIA assigned to snoop
on UN secretary-general Dag Hammarskjold. Legros helped the CIA
kidnap the African leader Moise Tshombe..." Not finally,
Legros became an associate (in France and in Brazil) of the legendary
French gangster Christian David.
Rio and Sao Paulo, David established a Brazilian-based narcotics syndicate
to fill the vacuum created when the so-called "French connection" was
broken.  In this
task, he was abetted by fugitive French collaborators and war criminals
living in Argentina, Paraguay, Chile and Brazil.
by the Brazilian authorities in 1972, David was eventually deported to
the United States, and then extradited to France---where he was sentenced
to death.  Meanwhile,
David's pal, Fernand Legros, was himself in a Rio prison---occupying the
cell next to Ronald Biggs. The circumstances of Legros's imprisonment
are murky, but it has been suggested that he was locked up as an exercise
in protective custody, supposedly for having helped the CIA to arrange
David's arrest. While that allegation is unproven, it is certainly
true that Legros had a rather easy time of it behind bars. "Each
day...he was brought lavish meals including lobster, champagne, cognac and
fat Havana cigars." 
All of which
is to say: what? That Jim Jones was somehow involved in the 1963
Great Train Robbery, or in the 1965 murder of Ben Barka? Hardly.
Do I mean, then, to suggest that Jones was a party to the making and breaking
of the "Brazilian Connection," or that he was implicated in the wave
of forgeries that culminated in Clifford Irving's "autobiography" of
Howard Hughes? Of course not.
has only been to demonstrate that the milieu in which Jones found himself
in 1963---the Invesco milieu, revolving around Scott Johnson, et al.---was
anything but ordinary. A suspected CIA conduit, Invesco was owned
and operated by men and women whose connections to criminals such as
Ronald Biggs and spooks like Fernand Legros---and to gangster-spooks such
as Christian David---are worth a deeper look. The coalescence of
organized crime and the CIA during the early 1960s was responsible for
parapolitical enormities which continue to resonate beneath the surface
of American politics and culture.
to Dan Mitrione and Jon Lodeesen, his resort to cover stories, his use
of multiple passports, and his strange involvement with the Invesco circle,
strongly suggests that the 1978 tragedy in Guyana was set in motion in
Cuba and Brazil some fifteen years earlier.
69. Op cit., The Broken God,
p. 27. Click here to rerturn.
70. Despite Oswald's demonstration of
pro-Castro sympathies---he was arrested in New Orleans after handing out
leaflets for the Fair Play for Cuba Committee (FPCC)---his impostor was
not given the requested visa. Click here to return.
71. Estado do Minas, "Pastor
Jim Jones lived and worked in Belo Horizonte with his children," Nov. 23,
1978, p. 23. Click here to return.
72. "To Brazilians, Jim Jones was a
CIA Agent," O Globo, Nov. 24, 1978. Click here
73. "Leader of the Peoples Temple Lived
in Belo Horizonte," Estado de Minas, Nov. 23, 1978, p. 1; and, from
the same issue, "Pastor Jim Jones lived and worked in Belo Horizonte with
his children," p. 23. Click here to return.
74. Ibid. Click here to return.
75. Besides de Magalhaes, Elineu Pereira
Guimaraes and Marcidio Inacio da Silva were interviewed. See O
Globo, "To Brazilians, Jim Jones was a CIA Agent," Nov. 24, 1978. Click here to return.
76. Estado do Minas, "Pastor
Jim Jones lived and worked in Belo Horizonte with his children," Nov. 23,
1978, p. 23. Click here to return.
77. "To Brazilians, Jim Jones was a
CIA Agent," O Globo, Nov. 24, 1978. Click here to return.
78. Brazilians newspapers identify
the woman as "Joyce Bian." Since one of Jones's ministerial assistants,
Jack Beam, is known to have joined him in Belo Horizonte in October,
1962, and to have brought his family with him, we may suppose that this
was Beam's daughter. Click here to return.
79. O Globo, "To Brazilians,
Jim Jones was a CIA Agent," Nov. 24, 1978. Click here
80. Besides Marco Rocha's remarks about
a car from the American Consulate, Bonnie Thielman recalls that Jones often
went to the Consulate on unknown business. Click here
81. The letter from Lodeesen, with the
photograph attached, was provided by the FBI to attorneys in the Layton case.
Click here to return.
82. See CIA in the Dock, edited
by V. Chernyavsky, Progress Publishers, Moscow (1983): "Saboteurs on the
Air: A Close-up View" by Vaim Kassis and Leonid Kolosov, pp. 147-67. Click here to return.
83. The letter (dated January 12, 1983)
was from Ned Avary to Ron Rewald, then CEO of the Hawaiian investment firm
Bishop, Baldwin, Rewald and Dillingham. Click here
84. Jones's address in Rio was #154
Rua Senador Vigueiro. Click here to return.
85. For example, Jones's natural son,
Stephan. Click here to return.
86. Brazil Herald, "The little-known
story: Jim Jones' early days in Rio de Janeiro," by Harold Emert, December
24-26, 1978, p. 9. Click here to return.
87. There have been persistent rumors
that Jones, while in Rio, was employed by a "CIA-owned advertising agency."
Invesco, while not an advertising agency, is the only firm to which these
rumors could possibly refer. It is certainly the case that any number
of Brazilians suspected that its American owners were working for the CIA.
Click here to return.
88. Once again, there is an interesting
parallel between events surrounding Jim Jones and those involving Lee Harvey
Oswald. That is to say, shortly after Oswald's arrest, a story went
out on the wires describing in detail Oswald's peculiar background as a
defector, the time that he spent in New Orleans, and so forth.
The author of the scoop was Seth Kantor. Like Emert, however, Kantor
was not the ultimate source of the story he reported---another journalist,
"too busy to write it himself" (!), had given it to Kantor over the telephone.
This was Hal Hendrix, a CIA operative working under journalistic cover.
Click here to return.
89. Huber bought the Brazil Herald
from William Williamson, and later sold it to the Latin American Daily
News. Click here to return.
90. This information derives from sources
in Rio. See, also, A.J. Langguth's Hidden Terrors, Pantheon
Books, 1978, p. 88. Click here to return.
91. United States Pentration of Brazil,
by Jan Knippers Black, University ofPennsylvania Press, 1977, pages 82-6.
Click here to return.
92. Ibid. Click here to return.
93. Ms. Huber is said to be Gilbert
Huber's sister-in-law, but that information has yet to be confirmed. Click here to return.
94. An anecdotal account of Biggs' life
in Rio, which discusses his friendship with Johnson and Huber, can be found
in Biggs: The World's Most Wanted Man, by Colin Mackenzie, William
Morrow & Co., New York, 1975. Click here to return.
95. ODESSA is an acronym for Organization
der Entlassene SS Angehorige (Organization for the Release of Former
SS Members). Die Spinne (The Spider), which was also known
as the "Swastika Syndicate," was the clandestine operations arm of ODESSA.
See Skorzeny: Hitler's Commando, by Glenn B. Infield, St. Martin's
Press, 1981 (New York). Click here to return.
96. The Train Robbers, by Piers
Paul Read, W.H. Allen, London (1978). Click here to return.
97. Since this was written, I was able
to interview Buster Edwards at his flower-stall outside Waterloo Station
in London. In that interview, Edwards confirmed what he'd told Read,
and elaborated upon it with further details. Click here
98. The name is a pseudonym that Read
used in his book Click here to return.
99. This name is also a pseudonym, according
to Read. Click here to return.
100. Edwards invested 10,000 pounds
in a real estate firm that Skorzeny was using to develop land near Alicante.
Click here to return.
101. Ibid., p. 195. Besides
Edwards, Bruce Reynolds and Charlie Wilson met with Schmid in Mexico City.
Click here to return.
102. Ibid., pp. 257-58. Click here to return.
103. The Great Heroin Coup,
by Henrik Kruger. Click here to return.
104. Hammerskjold died in a plane crash
in the Congo on September 17, 1961. The suspicion that the plane
was sabotaged is widespread, but to date unproven. See The Last
Days of Dag Hammerskjold, by Arthur L. Gavshon, Barrie & Rockliff
with Pall Mall Press, London, 1963. Click here to
105. Following the arrest and extradition
of Paraguya's Auguste Ricard, heroin refined in Marseilles was shipped
to David in Brazil for transport to the United States. Click here to return.
106. The sentence appears never to
have been carried out, and there are unconfirmed reports that David was
freed some time ago. Click here to return.
107. Kruger tells us that, in 1974,
French intelligence agents kidnapped Legros from Brazil, and brought him
back to France. Imprisoned there, he was released upon the demands
of Henry Kissinger, who protested the mistreatment of an American citizen.
Click here to return.